All these causes paved way for the revolt. CAUSES OF REVOLT The rifle's cartridges contained 68 grains of FF blackpowder, and the ball was typically a 530-grain Pritchett or a Burton-Minié ball. are three important causes of the revolt of 1857: Queries asked on Sunday & after 7pm from Monday to Saturday will be answered after 12pm the next working day. Immediate Cause of Revolt. [14], The pay of the sepoy was relatively low and after Awadh and the Punjab were annexed, the soldiers no longer received extra pay (batta or bhatta) if posted there, because this was no longer considered "foreign service". Since the batta made the difference between active service being considered munificent or burdensome, the sepoys repeatedly resented and actively opposed inconsiderate unilateral changes in pay and batta ordered by the Military Audit department. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large … Hence, t… [7] Several years before the sepoys' mutiny, Lord William Bentinck had attacked several jagirs in western Bengal. Because of all these reasons Kings, Princes, their courtiers and disbanded soldiers an… However much of this sense of the invincibility of the British was lost in the First Anglo-Afghan War where poor political judgement and inept British leadership led to the massacre of Elphinstone's army (which included three Bengal regiments) while retreating from Kabul. Under the British rule, there was a severe deterioration of the condition of Indian agriculture. The other causes of the Revolt of 1857 were the military policies of the British. IAS Kracker — August 27, 2017 15 comments The Revolt or uprising of 1857 was a valiant effort by disgruntled Indian sepoys to overthrow the colonial power from Indian shores, however, it ended in failure. which was taken in complete disregard to their religious beliefs. Often the British officers treated the sepoys rudely. The General Service This reinforced the belief that the original issue cartridges were indeed greased with lard and tallow. A group of historians and writers has asserted that the Revolt was the result of a widespread and well-organized conspiracy. Sepoy’s Mutiny. [9], Until the 1840s there had been a widespread belief amongst the Bengal sepoys in the iqbal or continued good fortune of the East India Company. When the mood of the sepoys turned against their masters, they remembered Kabul and that the British were not invincible. The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. list any three military causes of the revolt of 1857. Economic Causes: Added to political and administrative distrust for the British East India Company, … The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. In contrast, foreign Christians such as Revd Midgeley John Jennings, and Indian converts to Christianity such as one of Zafar's personal physicians, Dr. Chaman Lal, were killed. [16], At the beginning of the nineteenth century, British officers were generally closely involved with their troops, speaking Indian languages fluently; participating in local culture through such practices as having regimental flags and weapons blessed by Brahman priests; and frequently having native mistresses. Related Questions to study. Few of these participated in the rebellion, and one contingent in particular (the recently raised Punjab Irregular Force) actively participated on the British side. … The forces were divided into three presidency armies: Bombay, Madras, and Bengal. Although the armies of many Rajas or states which rebelled contained large numbers of guns, the British superiority in artillery was to be decisive in the siege of Delhi after the arrival of a siege train of thirty-two howitzers and mortars. This meant that when they came to be threatened by modernising regimes in Calcutta, from the 1840s onwards, the sepoys had become accustomed to very high ritual status, and were extremely sensitive to suggestions that their caste might be polluted. The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to adopt a son. Many Indians felt that the company was asking for heavy tax from the locals. Causes of the Revolt of 1857: (a) Political Causes i. Doctrine of Lapse: Lord Dalhousie successfully annexed many Indian states to the English East India Company. Ruin of the Mercantile Class. [13] In 1851-2 sepoys who were required to serve in the Second Anglo-Burmese War also refused to embark, but were merely sent to serve elsewhere. Economic Causes. As further evidence, he observes that the Urdu sources of the pre- and post-rebellion periods usually refer to the British not as angrez (the English), goras (whites) or firangis (foreigners), but as kafir (disbeliever) and nasrani (Christians). The resumption of tax free land and confiscation of jagirs (the grant or right to locally control land revenue) caused discontent among the jagirdars and zamindars. [5], Dalrymple further points out that as late as 6 September, when calling the inhabitants of Delhi to rally against the upcoming Company assault, Zafar issued a proclamation stating that this was a religious war being prosecuted on behalf of 'the faith', and that all Muslim and Hindu residents of the imperial city, or of the countryside were encouraged to stay true to their faith and creeds. Later, the attitudes of British officers changed with increased intolerance, lack of involvement and unconcern of the welfare of troops becoming manifest more and more. The subsidiary alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse of Dalhousie angered Indian Princes. Another important source of discontent among the Indian rulers was that the British policies of conquest had created significant unrest. 094: British Occupation of India - Part 9: The Causes and Impact of the Revolt of 1857 In this episode, we talk about The Causes and Impact of the Revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857 is also known by other names such as The Sepoy Mutiny, The Indian Mutiny, The Great Rebellion, The Indian Insurrection, India’s First War of Independence. Underlying grievances over British taxation and recent land annexations by the British East Indian Company (BEIC) also contributed to the anger of the sepoy mutineers, and within weeks, dozens of units of the Indian army joined peasant armies in widespread rebellion. MILITARY CAUSES. The British treat the Indian soldiers very differently from their counterparts. Indian troops to overwhelm their British colleagues. Disproportion between Indian and British troops. Some Indians were upset with the draconian rule of the Company who had embarked on a project of territorial expansion and westernisation that was imposed without any regard for historical subtleties in Indian society. Following are three important causes of the revolt of 1857: Ill-treatment of Indian Soldiers - The East India Company discriminated against their Indian sepoys. He also resumed the practice of tax free lands in some areas. [21], The Bengal Army also administered, sometimes loosely, 29 regiments of irregular horse and 42 of irregular infantry. Enlistment Act of 1856 required Indian soldiers to be sent overseas for Ill-treatment This was done by using the provisions of the Doctrine ofLapse. Copyright Notice © 2020 Greycells18 Media Limited and its licensors. 2. Thanks, you will receive a call between 10:00am - 7:00pm IST. that point of time. Sympathetic rulers, such as Lord William Bentinck were replaced by arrogant aristocrats, such as Lord Dalhousie, who despised the troops and the populace. This would have insulted both Hindu and Muslim religious practices; cows were considered holy by Hindus, while pigs were considered unclean by Muslims. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. As time passed, the powers of the commanding officers reduced and the government became more unfeeling or distant from the concerns of the sepoys. The Company interfered in the internal matters of Indian States and followed the policy of divide and rule. Leader of the British Conservative Party and future prime minister Benjamin Disraeli argued these objects were signs to rebel and evidence of a conspiracy, and the press echoed this belief. [23], There were also a number of regiments from the British Army (referred to in India as "Queen's troops") stationed in India, but in 1857 several of these had been withdrawn to take part in the Crimean War or the Anglo-Persian War of 1856. ii. the year 1856, the Company army had2, 38,000 Indians and 45,322 British soldiers. Causes for the Revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857, also known as The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was caused by various factors which were political, social, economic and military in nature. Political: Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of pesewa Baji Rao II. Lands were confiscated from the landlords and auctioned. Mason, Philip (1974), pages 186 and 313 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. C. RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION. Just before the Rebellion there were over 300,000 sepoys in the army, compared to about 50,000 British. Though paid marginally less than the Bombay and Madras Presidency troops, there was a tradition of trust between the soldiery and the establishment â€” the soldiers felt needed and that the company would care for their welfare. Mason, Philip (1974), page 226 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. [8], Unlike the Madras and Bombay Armies of the BEIC, which were far more diverse, the Bengal Army recruited its regular soldiers almost exclusively amongst the landowning Bhumihars and Rajputs of the Ganges Valley. Moreover, there was no scope of promotion and made to serve overseas. Brahmins to cross the seas. Join NOW to get access to exclusive study material for best results. The Anglo-Indian historians have greatly emphasised the importance of military grievances and the greased cartridges affair as the most potent causes which led to the great rising of 1857. This took the form of Muslim millenarianism, with preachers in Lucknow foretelling the end of the raj. This included an increase in the taxation on land. [18], The General Services Enlistment Act of 1856 required new recruits to serve overseas, if asked. Prior to the period of British rule, any refusal to proceed on service until pay issues were resolved was considered a legitimate form of displaying grievance by Indian troops serving under Indian rulers. Proportion of Indians in the British Army -. The Revolt of 1857 was started by the company’s sepoys. In 1824, there was another mutiny by a regiment ordered overseas in the First Anglo-Burmese War, who were refused transport to carry individual cooking vessels and told to share communal pots. The old aristocracy, both Muslim and Hindu, who were seeing their power steadily eroded by the BEIC, also rebelled against British rule. Political, Economic, Social and Military causes. 3 mins read. Mason, Philip (1974), page 190 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. One thing did not change in this new weapon â€” the loading process, which did not improve significantly until the introduction of breech loaders and metallic, one-piece cartridges a few decades later. The Absentee Sovereignty of British means that India was being ruled by the British Government from England. "[26] Their rule in India had begun with the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Larger Other irregular units were raised in frontier areas from communities such as Assamese or Pashtuns to maintain order locally. 2 mins read. The soldiers performed well on the field of battle in exchange for which they were rewarded with symbolic heraldic rewards such as battle honours in addition to the extra pay or "batta" (foreign pay) routinely disbursed for operations committed beyond the established borders of Company rule. However, traditionally it was a taboo for the As a result, it became easier for the rebelling The revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economic, socio-religious and military causes. ADVERTISEMENTS: The course of events of the Revolt of 1857. VIEW MORE. Causes of the Revolt. The sepoys were local soldiers, the majority Hindu or Muslim, that were recruited into the Company's army. The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. Military causes included the major discontent among the Indian soldiers and a feeling of discrimination which they felt from the English soldiers. The Bengal Army recruited higher castes, such as "Rajputs and Brahmins", mostly from the Aw… Related posts: What were few political and military factors responsible for the Revolt of 1857? They cannot rise above the rank of Subedar. Historians have identified diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. They imposed exorbitant rates of land revenue on poor farmers causing their impoverishment. The British Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856 was Lord Dalhousie who passed the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856 which allowed widows to remarry, like Christian women. Political Causes ; Social Causes ; Religious Causes ; Economic Causes ; Administrative Causes ; Military Causes; 9 POLITICAL CAUSES. [12], There had been earlier indications that all was not well in the armies of the East India Company. Mason, Philip (1974), page 264 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. [2] Author Pramod Nayar points out that by 1851 there were nineteen Protestant religious societies operating in India whose goal was the conversion of Indians to Christianity. The Indian soldiers were also sent across the sea which was forbidden as per Hindu religious beliefs. The imperialist policy of the East India Company was an important factor. As they were an integral part of the Indian society, they too suffered the consequences of the oppressive British rule. [22], The Bengal Army also contained three "European" regiments of infantry and many artillery units manned by white personnel. • The Indian sepoys were looked upon as inferior beings and treated with contempt by their British officers. 4. Dalhousie had Briefly discriminated against their Indian. Military Causes: The Revolt of 1857 started as a sepoy mutiny. Social distance between officers and Indian soldiers. This led to extreme resentment among the successors of rulers who died without a natural heir. Following the disarming and disbandment of an additional seventeen Bengal Native Infantry regiments, which were suspected of planning mutiny, only twelve survived to serve in the new post-mutiny army. recommended recruitment of more British troops but it was not done at The sepoys were paid much less than the British soldiers and were also given inferior food and accommodation. Rich people like the merchants and moneylenders were therefore able to speculate in British land sales and drive out the most vulnerable peasant farmers. Results of revolt of 1857. Eleven of the sepoys were executed and hundreds more sentenced to hard labour. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control.One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the unjust and oppressive British Government took the form of a revolt Revolt of 1857 – Causes . The musketry books also recommended that, "Whenever the grease around the bullet appears to be melted away, or otherwise removed from the cartridge, the sides of the bullet should be wetted in the mouth before putting it into the barrel; the saliva will serve the purpose of grease for the time being" This meant that biting a musket cartridge was second nature to the Sepoys, some of whom had decades of service in the company's army, and who had been doing musket drill for every day of their service. Some of these units belonged to states allied to the British or recently absorbed into British-administered territory, and of these, two large contingents from the states of Awadh and Gwalior readily joined the growing rebellion. Once the first rebellions took place, it was clear to most British commanders that the grievances which led to them were felt throughout the Bengal army and no Indian unit could wholly be trusted, although many officers continued to vouch for their men's loyalty, even in the face of captured correspondence indicating their intention to rebel. Many sepoys believed that the cartridges that were standard issue with the new rifle were greased with lard (pork fat) which was regarded as unclean by Muslims and tallow (cow fat) which angered the Hindus as cows were equal to a goddess to them. The company had developed a military organisation where, in theory, fealty of the sepoys to the company was considered the height of "izzat" or honour, where the European officer replaced the village headman with benevolent figures of authority, and where regiments were mostly recruited from sepoys belonging to the same caste, and community. These changes caused widespread resentment not only among the landed aristocracy but also caused great havoc to a larger section of the middle-class people. MILITARY CAUSES. Mason, Philip (1974), pages 226-228 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. Furthermore, legal changes introduced by the British were accompanied by prohibitions on Indian religious customs and were seen as steps towards forced conversion to Christianity. 10. Historians have identified diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In The first sepoy who rebelled by aiming his loaded weapon at a British officer was Mangal Pandey who was later executed.[25]. During the late eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth century, the armies of the East India Company, in particular those of the Bengal Presidency, were victorious and indomitable â€” the term "high noon of the sepoy army" has been used by a military historian. Military Causes; Low salary and poor prospects of promotion. Discrimination in the salaries of Indians and Europeans. Military Causes. The serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that this requirement would be eventually extended to them, violating observance of the Kala Pani prohibition on sea travel. Such measures were considered a valid negotiating tactic by the sepoys, likely to be repeated every time such issues arose. The sepoys rejected this, pointing out that they might very well forget and bite the cartridge, not surprising given the extensive drilling that allowed 19th century British and Indian troops to fire three to four rounds per minute. The Indian soldiers were discriminated. Higher post in the army were reserved for the British. So, the reason for any revolt or revolution is that masses are not happy by the ruling authority. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. Following The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to Princes but also big Zamindars. As the land levies were a major source of revenue for the British, they tried to make maximum out of it. Mason, Philip (1974), pages 291-292 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. [10], Caste privileges and customs within the Bengal Army were not merely tolerated but encouraged in the early years of the company's rule. [17], Officers of an evangelical persuasion in the company's Army (such as Herbert Edwardes and Colonel S.G. Wheler of the 34th Bengal Infantry) had taken to preaching to their Sepoys in the hope of converting them to Christianity. Causes of Revolt of 1857 The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to various factors which are stated below: Religious & Social Causes – racism or racial discrimination was believed to be a major reason for the revolt of 1857 wherein Indians were exploited and were kept away from mixing with Europeans. Mason, Philip (1974), page 225 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. According to some historians, the revolt of 1857 was simply a Sepoy’s Mutiny. Economic and Military Causes of Revolt of 1857. All rights reserved. [15], The varying stances of the British government, the reduction of allowances and harsh punishments, contributed to a feeling amongst the troops that the Company no longer cared for them. Dalhousie had also appointed Inam Commission with powers to confiscate land. The moment at which the sepoys' grievances led them openly to defy British authority also happened to be the most favourable opportunity to do so.[24]. In this video you will see the simplified version of 1857 revolt and the 4 main causes i.e. The sepoys' British officers dismissed these claims as rumours, and suggested that the sepoys make a batch of fresh cartridges, and greased these with pig and cow fat. British and Indian military drills of the time required soldiers to bite off the end of the Beeswax paper cartridge, pour the gunpowder contained within down the barrel, stuff the remaining paper cartridge into the barrel, ram the paper cartridge (which included the ball wrapped and tied in place) down the barrel, remove the ram-rod, return the ram-rod, bring the rifle to the ready, set the sights, add a percussion cap, present the rifle, and fire. They too had a number of grievances. deployment if required. Another suggestion they put forward was to introduce a new drill, in which the cartridge was not bitten with the teeth but torn open with the hand. The military causes of Sepoy Mutiny primarily led to the outbreak of the 1857 revolt. Of Doctrine of Lapse Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted of. Revolt are many and can be grouped into Administrative, military, religious and social causes ; causes... 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